Folded Pages from the Local Palestinian History in the 20th Century
Developments in Politics, Society, Press, and Thoughts in Bethlehem in the British Era 1917-1948
By Dr. Adnan A. Musallam
Chapter II: In search of a better world the Roots of Palestinian Emigration to the Americas
In Search for a Better World: The Roots of Palestinian Emigration to the Americas until the Eve of the Nakba of 1948
The national dimension of Christians in the Holy Land and diaspora
There is no room here for us to review the long history of Arab Christians، but we suffice by saying that the Christians of this country، like the rest of the Arab people، are an organic part of the Arab and Islamic reality. They live in it، but we emphasize their presence and creative production in most fields of Arab-Islamic civilization. This presence is the product of the unity of Arab civilization and its continuity from its Syriac and Byzantine origins to its Islamic civilized face.”
Therefore، we categorically reject the ideas put forward by those researchers who insist that the Christians of the Holy Land are just a religious and social minority whose fate is directly linked to the Christian religious presence in the country. Unfortunately، this is the view of many writers and thinkers who do not belong to the Arab community. We reject these proposals. It is based on fanaticism، which first and last harms the fragmentation of one people into dozens of sects and sects، even if one of them becomes extinct as a result of emigration abroad، for example، there is no crying or wailing because it is “a fact and we must accept it with open arms، and we also reject the naive historical idea about Arab Christians.” It was proposed by some thinkers that Syria (including Lebanon and Palestine) for the Christian Arab represents a “homeland” whose meaning is different from what it means for his fellow Muslim، so migration was proposed as a natural way out: life was considered meaningful not in the homeland of the ancestor، but outside it. The feeling of uprooting was a natural condition of life for the vigilant Christian.
I do not consider the exodus of Christian Arabs from the Holy Land as a dangerous social phenomenon. The time has come to study it in all its political، social، economic، and demographic dimensions. This phenomenon plays a tragic role in emptying the land of its inhabitants and is detrimental to the brain drain and labor to developing and industrialized countries، although the Arab world and Palestinian society are in dire need of these capabilities that can participate effectively in the renaissance of Arab society and the fight against underdevelopment as it enters the doors of the twenty-first century.
The few benefits of immigration when compared to its harms. We suffice to say that the Arab community must pay close attention to the danger of immigration and know that a high percentage of immigrants do not return to their countries. Population by a cadre familiar with statistical and demographic sciences.
This survey should take into account all reports related to internal and external population movements and official statistics of the Arab population in Palestine issued by the Ottoman Empire، the Mandate Government، Jordan، Israel، and the Palestinian National Authority. Moreover، these reports should include statistics from the League of Nations and the United Nations، including international relief reports – UNRWA.
We also must not forget the need to formulate comprehensive statistics on Christian Arabs that are reflected in the records of the various Christian denominations. These population statistics and reports are the basic raw materials for any serious study of migration، without which it would be difficult to crystallize the historical، social، economic، and demographic frameworks for this study.
As for the second step، it is crystallizing the historical framework of the emigration phenomenon that takes into account the accuracy and integrity of the objective conditions that prompted the Christian Arabs to emigrate since the last quarter of the nineteenth century.
In addition to studying the main factors that encouraged immigration، such as the backwardness of the Ottoman Empire، European penetration in the nineteenth century، the outbreak of World War I، and the worsening of the situation in Palestine. There are questions to be answered regarding the position of various governments in the Holy Land on immigration.
- What was the position of the Mandate government in Palestine regarding immigration?
- What is the nature of the “nationality laws” enacted by this government?
- What are the implications of these laws on the return of Arab immigrants to the homeland?
- How was the position of the Jordanian government towards immigrants between 1950 and 1967?
- How is this situation reflected on the “nationality laws”?
- What are the regulations and laws that Israel enacted in order to empty the land of the population?
A third step is necessary، which is the field study of Christian Arabs and the living conditions they face، which is carried out by a cadre of sociologists and social services. Statistical and historical studies often lack the human element in their folds. This is what the field study provides.
When these statistical، historical، and field studies are available، we will have paved the way for an objective diagnosis of the phenomenon and for proposing practical solutions to address it by social actors and religious and national institutions.
As the first step in this direction، Al-Liqa’ Center for Religious and Heritage Studies in the Holy Land held the fourth session of the conference on “Theology and the Local Church in the Holy Land” in the summer of 1990، where the proceedings of this conference were devoted to the problem of immigration. In this conference، a group of the sons of the homeland studied this dangerous phenomenon from all its social، political، historical، economic، religious، and literary aspects. The importance of this conference is that it paved the way for serious and constructive discussion at all religious، civil، and national levels.
The historical roots of immigration
The main trends of migration in the Ottoman period:
In the last quarter of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries، the Mediterranean region witnessed waves of mass migrations to and from the Ottoman Empire. As for the waves of emigration abroad، they were an integral part of the phenomenon of global migration، the migration of human waves that started between 1880 and 1920 from southern and central Europe and the Ottoman Empire towards the American shores (the United States)، which numbered 25 million people، including Italians، Greeks، Slavs، and Jews the Ottomans and others.
The number of Arab Ottomans from natural Syria (now Lebanon، Palestine، Syria، and Jordan) in this emigration was estimated at 250،000، not to mention the thousands of immigrants who headed towards Latin America. The Ottoman Consul in Buenos Aires، Argentina، stated in his report that 46،000 thousand Ottoman immigrants arrived between 1911 and 1913 only. The Consul urged his country to put an end to this phenomenon. As for the number of Ottoman immigrants to the Americas between 1860 and 1914، their number was estimated at 1،200،000 them. 330،000 people from Syria.
The main attractions that directed the waves of immigrants to the Americas were economics. The massive manufacturing process in the United States required labor، and this is what was secured by large numbers of immigrants. Rising wages and rumors that the US government was distributing farmland free to anyone who wanted to settle in the western regions of the United States، as enacted in the Homestead Act of 1862، gave a major boost to immigration. Many requests (for work force) also reached the Ottoman Ministry of Foreign Affairs، such as the request made by the Brazilian landlord Paulo Duval from the city of São Paulo for large numbers of Ottoman agricultural workers. The news of the wealth afflicted by the pioneers from the immigrants and the remittances sent to the motherland spread widely. This was an incentive for others to follow suit. The money sent by immigrants to their homeland in natural Syria in 1914 was estimated at 8 million dollars.
It should be noted that the various immigrant centers in the Americas، in turn، have become a major attraction factor for the immigrant’s family members and relatives who migrate to these centers، not for economic reasons، but rather to join their families. In the years 1908 and 1909، the main reason for the emigration of 95% of Syrians coming to the United States was the family relationship.
This attraction factor has played a significant role in the consolidation and continuity of emigration abroad to this day. If this human bleeding continues، its consequences will be dire and eventually lead to the complete extinction of entire Palestinian families، as happened and are happening in the Bethlehem region، which I will refer to shortly.
There was also a movement parallel to emigration abroad، which is emigration to the Ottoman Empire، which was the outcome of the recurring Arab-Ottoman wars in the nineteenth century. The Russian conquest of the Caucasus regions (between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea)، the outbreak of the War of 1878، caused the flight of a million Muslims to the Ottoman Empire in the period between 1859 and 1879. In the twentieth century، the violent outbreak of the Balkan War (Bulgaria، Serbia، Montenegro، and Greece) And the Ottoman Empire in 1912/1913 to the displacement of 300،000 Muslim Turks. The migration of these Islamic peoples and the significant degeneration of parts of the Ottoman Empire in Europe that were inhabited by Christians to digital demographic developments have determined the deepening of the Ottoman Islamic identity.
The arrival of these human waves from Circassians، Bosnians، Cretans، and others led to the end of the severe demographic crisis in the country in the first half of the nineteenth century، which prompted the Ottoman government in 1857 to announce in the European press its readiness to receive and absorb immigrants from abroad.
Immigration from Palestine in the Ottoman period
In most aspects of life، Palestine has been linked for most of its history with Greater (natural) Syria. The artificial borders that we see now separate the Palestinian from the Syrian، from the Lebanese، from the Jordanian from the Palestinian، etc. It did not crystallize except in the wake of the British and French colonial agreements، as embodied in the Sykes-Picot Agreement/May 1916، the military occupation regime/Anglo-French Agreement/September 1918، and the San Remo Resolutions/April 1920.
Migration from Palestine began with the beginning of the movement in Syria. The main driving factor for migration from the Levant was the deteriorating economic situation، which had negative effects on all population groups، whether Christian or Islamic. We see the push factors escalating with the openness of Palestine and the Levant to new Western ideas and planning. The space for the industrial revolution in Europe and the colonial movements that accompanied it in the Arab world fell into the western economic zone and in vain the local handicrafts tried to compete with the wholesale space، which led to the collapse of the local economy، and the consolidation of European economic dependence.
Adding a significant factor of instability in the region of migration to migration. The father and demographic decline in the Ottoman Empire. Bribery، nepotism، and administrative corruption spread، and the peasantry، who represented the vast majority of the people، was burdened with taxes and levies.
Banditry has spread everywhere، and the word “khawa” has appeared in our popular lexicon، which is the tax of the weak to the strong، or extortion from the weak.
In addition، the continuous wars of the Ottoman Empire in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries exhausted the youth، as immigration became a way out and a means for young people to escape from the military and the continuous wars، including the Berlik War / World War I.
In addition to the above-mentioned factors، we must mention that the existence of holy places in Palestine، the status of Jerusalem and Palestine on the international scene، the spread of foreign religious institutions in the holy lands، the crowding of Palestine with visitors and pilgrims from all parts of the world، and their mixing with Arab Christian translators، sellers of souvenirs and people who are familiar with foreign languages. All of this eventually led to an increase in the Christian Arabs’ awareness of Europe and the new world، which gave birth to a curiosity to see and settle in those countries to take advantage of the economic opportunities available، like the rest of the world’s peoples.
There is a piece of information that must be mentioned because it necessitates that we reconsider the history of immigration from Palestine and the Levant. The information available to us refers to the emigration of Palestinians abroad، starting from the last quarter of the nineteenth century. However، the first death in Latin America and recorded in the records of the Diwan of the Latin community in Bethlehem dates back to 7/9/1796، and the late Andrea Francis Hanna Daoud from the Tarjimah neighborhood.
The question that arises is: Was David’s presence in Latin America just a passing individual phenomenon، or was it part of a broader presence of the Palestinians in those lands? What is the nature of the journey of the late David? Are there similar cases in the records of Al-Khornia or other records? If it is necessary to thoroughly scrutinize this information. But it confirms that the Palestinians were “years before Arab immigrants to go to the unknowns of America” and that the Palestinians preceded their Lebanese brothers to immigrate to the new world، but in a miniature، and did not settle in the countries in which they settled، as the Lebanese did. This was confirmed by the sheikh of the Lebanese Arab community in Brazil in the fifties، Rizkallah Haddad، as mentioned in the book “The Speakers of the Antidote in South America.” Two brothers of the Zakharia family، from the Al-Tarajma neighborhood in Bethlehem، were among the first Arabs to arrive in Brazil in 1874. They sold antiques such as shells، crosses، and icons on the main crafting street in Rio.
International exhibitions in the United States have also played a leading role in attracting Palestinian merchants. Many of them came to visit the Philadelphia International Exposition in 1876، the Chicago Exposition in 1893، and the Saint Louis Exposition in 1904، bringing with them industries of the Holy Land such as shells، olive wood، and the Prophet Moses stone. To display and sell them to believers at attractive prices. It happened that a Mexican merchant was impressed by the Bethlehem products، and his name was Hanna Khalil Morcos، on the condition that the latter would visit Mexico accompanied by the products of the Holy Land. This is what Mr. Morcos did when he returned to Bethlehem and was supplied with Bethlehem products، and then he returned to Mexico in 1895 and settled in that country. Others followed in the footsteps of Morcos، including Mr. Grace Anton Abu Al-Araj، who went with his wife Sarah Daoud to the Republic of Guatemala after the end of the International Fair، where he made a fortune selling products from the Holy Land and decided to stay in that country and engage in trade there.
The news of the pioneers، the wealth they had acquired، and the financial transfers sent home so that their families would pay tribute to the luxurious homes، spread widely. All of this generated jealousy in the hearts of everyone، and some Syrians and Lebanese followed the example of their Palestinian brothers in selling antiques in the Holy Land until many professionals and propaganda spread that these products were manufactured in Europe، so Westerners refrained from buying antiques، and Palestinian merchants had to go to other destinations. Hence، stability and devotion to free trade began، and the focus was on the profession of street vendors at the beginning، similar to their Syrian and Lebanese brothers. The Arab traders penetrated into Central and South America، and the Palestinians chose the countries located on the shores of the Pacific Ocean، such as Chile، Peru، Colombia، and Bolivia. With time، Chile became a major center for immigrants from the cities of Bethlehem and Beit Jala. Al-Tarajmeh neighborhood in Bethlehem. The late Youssef Jacir from Bethlehem and the late Yusef Jaris Salah from Jerusalem joined him، and the three participated in the trade profession.
Migration was slow and temporary in the beginning. The main goal was to raise funds and return to the homeland، until the years 1908-1918، coups، wars، and forced conscription created a noticeable increase in the number of immigrants. With the outbreak of the first global war، the prices of basic materials skyrocketed، and many goods disappeared from the markets. In the years 1915 and 1916، hundreds of thousands of the country’s residents were on the verge of perishing from starvation. Typhus epidemics also spread. Mass desertions from the military were a common phenomenon، and thus the slow migration turned the temporary transition has gradually turned into a dangerous social phenomenon whose bitter reality we are still experiencing until now.
Emigration from Palestine during the British era (1917-1948)
Emigration continued throughout the British mandate period in light of the worsening political situation in the country، and most of the immigrants headed to Latin America. The convoys of expatriates followed each other as a result of the presence of relatives in those countries، especially in Chile، Colombia، Peru، Honduras، and El Salvador. Moreover، very few immigrants made it to the shores of North America/USA at this point. The American laws concluded in the aftermath of World War I، i.e.، between 1917 and 1924، limited the immigration of non-Anglo-Saxons such as Italians، Slavs، Arabs، Asians، and Africans، and were aimed at maintaining the racial and cultural dominance of white Anglo-Saxon Protestants. These are the same years that witnessed the emergence of the racist mass movements against everything called Catholic، immigrant، foreign، black، and Jew، which was embodied in the “Ku Klux Klan” movement that reached its climax in 1923 when its followers were estimated in the millions.
As for the total number of Palestinian immigrants in this period، it is difficult to estimate because there are no official statistics، but the approximate estimate of this emigration in 1936 was 40،000 immigrants. With the arrival of convoys of immigrants to the main immigration centers، some neighborhoods in the main Latin American cities became characterized by a Palestinian character، at a time when the names of some large families in Palestinian cities began to disappear gradually from local records as a result of mass immigration and the joining of individuals and families with their relatives in the diaspora، as happened in Bethlehem for the following families (but not limited to):
|Farahiya quarter||Anatara quarter||Tarajmah quarter||‘Najajrah quarter||Hreizat quarter||Qawawsah quarter|
|jada’||Shahin||Kamandari||Al- A’lul||Abu Jarur||Abu- Nifhar|
|Barakah||Abu Gheith||Talmas||Hilwah||Abu Hirmas||Abu Shunnar|
|Zaitun||Al Chat’ah||Al- Tqu’i|
Migration is the alienation of the Palestinian person. Migration drove him away from his land، between which there is a spiritual and material connection. This alienation eventually led to the destruction of the land and trees. Our popular literature has expressed indignantly this phenomenon، i.e.، immigration to America، by saying:
The issue of the return of immigrants to the homeland and the Committee for the Defense of the Rights of Immigrants in Palestinian Nationality
It should be noted that، a good number of immigrants wanted to return to their homeland because they emigrated not for the sake of emigration، but rather to improve their economic conditions or to escape the scourge of recurrent wars. When the First World War ended، many decided to exercise their natural right to return to their hometown، but the British authorities closed the doors of return to them at a time when the gates of Palestine were wide open for Jewish immigrants. The Palestinian Nationality Law was signed in 1925، with the main objective of facilitating the acquisition of Palestinian citizenship for Jews coming to Palestine، as approved by Article VII of the Mandate system.
As for the Arab immigrants who left the country before 1920، Britain considered them Turks، because they traveled during the period of Ottoman rule، and this British position was in complete contradiction with Article 34 of the Treaty of Lausanne، which stipulated that citizenship should be granted to the children of countries that were seceded from the Ottoman Empire، and in a period of time Two years from the date this treaty was put into effect on August 6، 1924، i.e. in a period specified by August 6، 1926. However، the Palestinian government did not enact the Palestinian Nationality Law and did not publish it in the Official Gazette until September 16، 1925. Therefore، the government has lost more than half of the period specified in the treaty. Add to this tragedy the failure of the British government to circulate the law to local newspapers، just as British commissioners in the Americas did not circulate it in newspapers for immigrants to see it.
The British ambassador in the Mexican capital told a Palestinian delegation that the British government “did not authorize him to spend three pounds to spread the aforementioned law.” In October 1927، the Mandate government in Palestine issued a proclamation stating، “Palestinian citizenship shall be granted to immigrants who left the country after 1920 or before this date and returned to the country and resided there for a period of six months.” As for the immigrants who left the country before 1920 and do not return، who make up ninety percent of the total immigrants abroad، Britain considered them as I mentioned earlier “Turks” completely ignoring that they are not Turks because of their race، nationality، language and emotion. As a result of this British policy، only one hundred of the nine thousand applications submitted by immigrants wishing to return to their motherland were approved.
The men of the Bethlehem region، headed by Khalil Issa Morcos from Bethlehem، Atallah Hanna Al-Najjar from Beit Jala، Issa Al-Khoury and Basil Bandak، owner of the “Sawt Al-Shaab” newspaper. The committee led the campaign against Britain’s arbitrary policy، which allows Jewish intruders to obtain citizenship on the easiest terms while placing many obstacles in the way of the return of the country’s legitimate citizens to their homeland.
I addressed an appeal to the British people in the form of a pamphlet that included the immigration barrier and the obstacles set by the British authorities to prevent Palestinians abroad from obtaining Palestinian citizenship. Issa Al-Bandak، Mayor of Bethlehem، and a member of the Committee to Defend the Issue of Palestinian Immigrants and Their Desire to Return، raised before the PEEL Committee (the British Royal Committee that came to Palestine in 1936)، which issued its recommendations for the partition of Palestine in 1937. This Royal Committee recommended in its report is to facilitate matters for those immigrants whose intentions to return are not suspected and who have maintained constant personal contact with Palestine. In its campaigns، the Defense Committee demanded that “all Palestinian immigrants residing abroad with their children at their request are considered to be of Palestinian nationality، and that all Palestinian immigrants، whether they return to Palestine or remain temporarily absent from it، have the right to obtain their right to Palestinian nationality once they submit official requests to the authorities.” the same jurisdiction، and that the orders be circulated to all representatives of the British state throughout the diaspora with the duty to defend and protect the interests of all Palestinian Arabs until the government recognizes their right to Palestinian citizenship and that the government considers these requests as expressing the feelings of Palestinian Arab public opinion in the country and in the diaspora.
As for the British government، it showed its willingness to defend the interests of those who obtained citizenship، and as for those who did not – who are the overwhelming majority – the British government refused to protect them، because it did not want to bear the responsibility for these large numbers whose main objectives were to benefit from British protection only، although Article 12 of The Mandate deed states that “the Mandatory shall also have the right to include nationals of Palestine while they are abroad، under the protection of its ambassadors and consuls.” When a delegation from the Palestinian community residing in El Salvador met the British Consul and asked him to work on this article، the Consul’s response was as follows: “The English state took the mandate over the land of Palestine only، and this mandate does not include the affairs of the Palestinians.”
Citizens deprived of their nationality faced very difficult circumstances، as happened in the Republic of El Salvador in Central America in July 1927، when the government enacted a law requiring every merchant whose capital exceeds thirty pounds to register his name and show his nationality papers. If the merchant fails to implement this، his stores are closed. The Palestinians asked the British Consul to give them a citizenship certificate، but he refused.
When some Palestinians tried to convert to Salvadoran nationality، in order to protect their interests، the government refused، on the grounds that، their resort to acquiring that nationality was not due to their love and affiliation، but only for personal benefit.
The immigrant who did not have citizenship in Latin America faced other difficulties، including them.
- He was unable to travel from one country to another to fulfill his commercial interests.
- The American republics, El Salvador and Guatemala in particular, enacted laws to deport anyone who did not possess Citizenship..
- Coups and rebellions frequently happened in the American republics. Normally foreigners took shelter with their consuls; but Palestinians came under the mercy of the strong and thus becoming a victim of blackmail.
- When an emigrant was unable to obtain his citizenship, he was inevitably compelled to acquire the citizenship of the country in which he was residing, thereby gradually becoming out of touch with his country and relatives and losing the incentive of returning to found industrial and commercial projects.
The various governments of Palestine continued to impede emigrants’ return to their country. After the formation of the Kingdom of Jordan, in 1950, Jordanian Citizenship Law Number 56/1949 It was enhanced. It was a great disappointment for the emigrants who had expected Jordan to take care of them and protect their interest. The law deprived emigrants of Jordanian citizenship on the basis that they were not in Jordan when the two banks united. It was similar to the Palestinian Citizenship Law, 1925, which deprived them of citizenship on the basis that the emigrants were not present in the country in 1920.
And since 1967 Israel has placed other great obstacles. Its aim has been clear, namely to vacate the land of its legitimate owners. Anyone who studies carefully the “family reunion laws” and restrictions imposed on “exit permits across the bridge” and ” the Laissez-passer and its renewal” will find that all of them encourage, in one way or another, emigration without return.
As for the Palestinian immigrant who did not obtain citizenship،, he settled permanently in the diaspora and played a leading role in the economy of his new country، and this is what happened to the immigrant in the British period. The stories of remarkable success are many and documented، among them we mention، for example، but not limited to: The brothers Hanin and Nicola Abu Jarour from Al-Huraizat neighborhood of Bethlehem and the most brilliant economic brains that Chile has known through the economic projects they carried out such as the Abu Jarour Brothers factories for cotton textiles، which reached an area of 80،000 square meters It employed about 3000 workers. and Sahouri brothers (from Bethlehem)، who established a modern industrial city for cotton textiles with an area of 150،000 square meters. And the factories of Suleiman al-Zummar from Beit Jala، and the factories of Hermas Brothers / Bethlehem، and the factories of Abi Subul Brothers / Beit Jala، and hundreds of their ilk.
Rarely do we hear of immigrants following in the footsteps of the late Abd al-Majid Shoman، who immigrated to the United States in 1911 carrying 8 gold pounds and returned to his homeland in 1929 to lay the foundations of the “Arab Bank” that later became one. One of the largest banking institutions in the Arab world. As for Ibrahim Abdullah Hanna Hazboun، who immigrated to Haiti، he returned to his hometown during the Ottoman era to obtain a decree from the Ottoman Sultan، through which he was granted the privilege of extracting salt from the Dead Sea، but the British authorities withdrew this. He abdicated it during the reign of the first British High Commissioner، Herbert Samuel.
Little do we hear about such persons as Badr and Ibrahim ‘Abdullah al- a’ma (Lama) who returned from Chile in 1927 armed with a knowledge of the art of photography and cinema acting. Their aim was to establish a cinema company in Palestine. However, a stop in Alexandria, Egypt, convinced them that opportunities in Egypt were better than in Palestine. They settled down and founded the “Condor Cinema Film Company,” which presented in May 1927 the first silent Arabic film in the history of Egyptian cinema, entitled “A kiss the Desert”. In the thirties and forties Lama studios became one of the major cinema companies in Egypt.
Though success stories of emigrants are documented and available, thousands of stories of failures are not, such as the stories of those who could not return home despite their deep love, as they did not possess even the fare to return to their homeland. They preferred the hardships of life and a slow death in the Diaspora as dignity did not and would not allow them to return as failures, and at the same time becoming a joke to their fellow Palestinians.
In this quick historical presentation of the formative stages of Palestinian immigration to the Americas from the last quarter of the nineteenth century, I tried to crystallize the various factors that helped the Palestinian person to emigrate. Diagnosing this historically dangerous phenomenon leads to the conclusion that successful treatment is to provide economic opportunities and psychological stability for the individual. An important element in resisting immigration is the crystallization of national and religious education in our homes and institutions، instilling a love of the homeland and belonging to the land and the community in the heart of every Palestinian person from an early age.
We also draw the attention of all the people of the country that this phenomenon has taken a gradual transformation since 1967 into a more dangerous phenomenon،, which is a voluntary collective “transfer” process from the Holy Land, which I hope political and social scientists monitor and diagnose as soon as possible. The homeland، but the phenomenon of emptying the land of Palestine from its original inhabitants in light of the influx of thousands of Jewish settlers from the former Soviet Union and the continuation of intensive Palestinian emigration abroad.
I want to sound the alarm… The countdown to this struggle for survival on this good land has begun، and this fateful struggle will depend on what we، the sons of the one nation، do to hold on to the land as individuals and groups. The road is long and arduous، but the future is in our hands. We die slowly or we thrive.
This post is also available in: العربية (Arabic)